Tuberculosis

What is Tuberculosis (TB)?

Tuberculosis is commonly known as TB. it is a bacterium infectious disease generally caused by the bacterium/ organism called as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. TB generally affects the lungs, even it can also spread other parts of the body. If you are affected by the bacteria you won’t inevitably become sick, as you can have either TB or Latent TB disease.

What is Latent Tuberculosis?

In many cases the infections do not have any symptoms, in that case, it is known as Latent Tuberculosis. Latent TB usually occurs when a person has the bacteria within their body, but it is present in very less in numbers. Bacteria can be kept in control with the body’s immune system and do not produce any symptoms. People who are affected by Latent TB do not have any symptoms nor they feel sick. If someone has Latent TB because they have had a test, like TB skin test or blood test. The people who have Latent TB are not infectious and cannot pass the bacteria to the other people. About 10% of latent infections advances to active disease which if left untreated will kill about half of those infected.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis (TB)

A person with Latent TB infection will have no symptoms. A person who is suffering from active TB disease may have all or any of the following symptoms:

  • A chronic cough with blood-containing sputum
  • Constant fatigue
  • A persistent cough
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever

These symptoms can also take place with another disease so it is must see a health care provider and know from them whether you have TB. some cases a person with TB disease may feel absolutely healthy or even a person may only have a cough from time to time. If you have a thought that you have been affected by TB, first get a TB test.

How Tuberculosis Spread?

TB can be spread through the air, or when a person who is suffering from active TB in their lungs when they

  • Cough
  • Laugh
  • Speak
  • Sneeze
  • Spit.
  • Active infection happens more frequently in people with AIDS/HIV and
  • People who smoke.

It is not easy to become infected with Tuberculosis. Generally, a person who has to be close to someone with TB disease from a long time. TB is much likely to spread between

  • Close friends,
  • Family members
  • People who live or work together and
  • Mostly TB is spread easily in closed spaces over a long period of time.

Active TB can be diagnosed on the basis of chest X-rays, as well as the culture of body fluids and Microscopic examination.

Not every person who is affected with the TB Germ (Latent TB) grows clinical active TB disease. People who are at highest risk for developing active TB  disease are those who have weak immune system, like

  • People with chronic condition such as kidney or diabetes disease
  • Organ transplant recipients
  • Young children and Babies, whose immune systems are not matured
  • People with AIDS/HIV
  • People who are receiving certain specialized treatments for autoimmune disorders like Crohn’s disease or rheumatoid arthritis
  • Cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy

Food that has to be consumed by TB patients

The following nutrition diet will help the TB patient to stay healthy. They are

  • Calories Rich Foods
  • Protein foods
  • Vitamins with B complex
  • Vitamins like A, E, and C
  • Zinc and Selenium

Calories rich foods

The best food for the TB patients is the food which is high in nutrient and calories rich to meet uprising metabolic demands and to prevent further weight loss. The calorie dense foods are

  • Porridge or kheer
  • Rava or sooji halwa or kesaribath
  • Banana
  • cereal
  • Ragi and wheat sprouted malt porridge or drink
  • Rava laddoo
  • Khichidi
  • Peanut chikki and more

Protein Foods

Protein needs can be increased by including

  • gingelly chikki or laddoo
  • Nut or dry fruit mixes
  • Groundnut

If a patient is not able to eat all these due to poor appetite then they can eat dry fruits and nuts, it can be powdered finely and then mixed into a milkshake or added to the phulka or roti to give more protein and energy. There are other protein-rich foods that are easily absorbed as well like

  • Eggs
  • Paneer
  • Tofu
  • Soya chunks

These can be grated and added to soups or milkshake or porridge and even diced into small pieces.

Vitamins with B complex

Most of the B complex vitamins are found in seeds, pulses, and whole grain cereals. For those who are non-vegetarians B complex can be found in fish, especially sea fish like Tuna Salmon Sardines, Mackerel, egg, lean cut of meat and chicken.

Vitamins like A, E & C

Some of the best foods for the TB patients are the Vegetables and Yellow Orange fruits which are rich in Vitamin A like

  • Orange
  • Sweet pumpkin
  • Papaya
  • Mango
  • Carrots

While Vitamin C can be obtained by consuming fresh fruits like

  • Tomato
  • Sweet lime
  • Orange
  • Amla
  • Guava
  • Capsicum
  • Lemon

Vitamin E can be found in Vegetable oils, nuts, wheat germ, and seeds.

Zinc and Selenium

Brazil nuts are the best origin of selenium. Or even fortified eggs are also available these days. Mushrooms and most of the nuts and seeds including chia seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame, pumpkin seeds, flax are also best sources of both zinc and selenium. Non- vegetarian options include chicken, fish, and oysters.

Calorie care provides well-planned meals to nourish with all required proteins, vitamins and mineral while taking care to provide just the right amount of calories.

How to prevent Tuberculosis?

If a person wants the prevention of TB involves screening those at high risk, it’s better if it is early detected and treatment of cases, and by taking the vaccination. The treatment needed are the use of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. With the increasing rates of multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis, the growing problem is Antibiotic resistance.

If you are infected with TB but do not have active TB disease, you may get preventive therapy. In this treatment, it will kill germs that are not doing any damage right now, but it may do in the future. The most common preventing therapy is a daily dose of medicine isoniazid (INH) for about 6 to 9 months. If you take medicine as instructed by your healthcare provider. It can prevent you from developing active TB disease.

BCG or Bacillus Calmette-Guerin is the vaccine against TB. these vaccines are used in many foreign countries where TB is very common. It will also make TB skin tests less accurate. Recent confirmations have shown that BCG is more effective at reducing the incidence of TB in children by about half in populations with a high fact of active TB but is much less effective in adults.

Facts about TB

  • The facts about TB are
  • About 9 million new TB cases occur in 2004, 80% of them are in 22 countries.
  • TB is a Contagious disease and it spreads through the air if not treated on time. Each person with active TB infects on an average of up to 10 to 15 people each year.
  • TB, Malaria and HIV/AIDS kill 6 million people every year; nearly 2 million people die due to TB.
  • TB is curable but it kills nearly 5000 people every day.
  • TB is a major killer disease among HIV-affected people with weakened immune systems; a quarter of a million TB deaths are associated with HIV, most of them in Africa.
  • TB is a disease of poverty, almost all the TB deaths have occurred in the developing world. TB mainly affects the most vulnerable, like the malnourished and poorest. Mostly affecting young adults in their most productive years.
  • One-third of the world’s population 2 billion people are infected with TB bacilli, the microbes that cause TB in 1 in 10 people infected with TB bacilli will become sick with active TB in their lifetime. The people with HIV are at more greater risk.
  • MDR-TB (Multidrug-resistant) TB is a form of TB that does not respond to the standard drug treatment. MDR-Tb is virtually present in all 109 countries recently surveyed by WHO and Partners

Exercise for TB patient are

  • Breathing exercise
  • Walk for at least  20 minutes or completing two 10 mins walk.
  • Light exercise
  • Yogasana

Consult Doctor

When a person is suspected or experienced with any of these symptoms of TB, then you must consult a doctor to get tested. Even you will get medical help right away if you have chest pain.

 

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